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As enunciated by Ngoma, this relationship takes two dimensions: In addition, the constantly changing realities and traumatic socio-political history of the African continent, together with the general unstable economic environment, have affected civil-military relations on the continent.
Therefore, the socio-political history and economic conditions of countries in Africa define the nature and character of civil-military relations Ibid pp. Perhaps the fusion of warriors and rulers in traditional African societies like what appear in Nigeria question the possibility of an effective civilian control of armed forces in the polity. Most empirical works on civil-military relations in Nigeria often follow discursive perspectives of norms as stipulated in the constitution and the strategies the military employ to remain in political power Adekanye, B , ; Fayemi K.
J These studies therefore do not go beyond analyzing the role of military as outlined in the constitution, the cause of military rule and its consequences on the political process.
Instead I examine the conditional or exigential factors that evolved during the course of military rules and how these factors have affected military relations with civilian authorities in order to determine civil-military behavior of the on-going Fourth Republic.
This enhances the possibility of combining traditions and theories which have not previously been connected.
Admittedly, there has been a concentration of research on civil-military relations in established democracies. Hence, major theories on civil-military relations were developed particularly for these democracies.
For example, Huntington , Janowitz , Bland , Feaver all focused their theories on established democracies. Combining traditions and theories that seem unrelated will enable this study to be situated within the stream of knowledge seeking to produce new understandings in the study of civil-military relations  particularly as it relates to transitional democracies.
In view of the above, this study proposes an argument that the degree of political instability in a post military state like Nigeria is proportional to civil-military behavior.
This behavior may reach a crisis level, or a relatively stable or balanced level, which is proportional to high, average or low political instability. To this end, I formulated three research hypotheses: These hypotheses are validated in the fourth chapter. This is further clarified in chapter three where I investigate the historical legacies of the Nigerian military that led to a perversion of the liberal model of civil-military relations inherited at independence.
In addition, I trace historically the kind of civil-military relations that the nation had from the First Republic to present. Most studies on civil-military relations in Nigeria avoid the complexity of the relationship by focusing on the constitutional role of the military in a democracy.
However, this study attempts to investigate how the conditional factors of the military as an institution have shaped or are shaping the nature and character of civil-military relations in the polity against the backdrop of the importance and the need to consolidate national democracy.
Henry Bienen once stated that most studies on civil-military relations in the third world neglect: Therefore, in an attempt to examine the military organization, the political process and democratization, this study will combine studies on democratization and transition research with theories of civil-military relations. It further ensures the possibilities of applying civil-military relations theories that were derived and focused on developed democracies to transitional democracies.
This is further explored in the next chapter where I deal with the arguments in relevant literatures on the theoretical and empirical aspects of civil military relations. To compliment the examination of the web of relations between the military and other components of society in Nigeria, I explore the strategies adopted by the Obasanjo and Yardua administrations to ensure civilian supremacy in the fourth chapter.
It provides the basis for understanding the problems of civil-military relations in Nigeria, as it relates to the suppression of democratic institutions by past military regimes.
The chapter further explains the interconnection between achieving the nation's aspiration for genuine democracy and her civil-military relations. I view civil-military relations as transitory as has been argued of democracy by scholars such as Thomas Carothers and Larry Diamond Carother, T , Diamond, L The last chapter of the study basically deals with the summary and conclusion.
The section identifies relevant policy recommendations on civil-military relations in Nigeria. L ed , Civilian and Security Agencies Relationship: African World Press, Heinemann ;. Agbese, Dan Fellow Nigerians: Umbrelaa Books, Amaike, Gift O. Society and Governance: Governing Insecurity: Zed Books, Feaver Peter Armed Servants: Harvard University Press.
Huntington, Samuel The Third Wave: University of Oklahoma Press Janowitz, Morris The Professional Soldier: A social and Political Portrait, New York: The Free Press, Obi, Cyril Nigeria: Civilian and Security Agencies Relationship: But unlike classic theories that largely ignore the day-to-day, strategic interactions between soldiers and civilians, Feaver argues that these interactions are best understood through an institutional lens of principal-agent theory.
In addition, there is an attempt to clarify Nigeria as a nation in transition within the parameters of an electoral democracy that is in transition to the basic fundamentals of democracy. Like any principal-agent relationship, the employer principal hired a diligent worker agent and once hired, the employer would like to be certain that the employee is doing what he is supposed to do working and not doing something else shirking.
In the civil-military context, the civilian principal contracts with the military agent to develop the ability to use force in defence of the civilian interest Feaver, P Once the contract is established, the civilian principal seeks to ensure that the military agent does what the civilians want while minimizing the dangers associated with the delegation of powers Ibid.
The civilian, therefore, decides the mechanism they will use to ensure that the military does not abuse their delegated role, though this mechanism has associated costs as propounded by Feaver. Agency theory explores how civilian and military actors relate on political decisions in a democracy. To Feaver, civil-military relations should be understood as a game of strategic interactions in which the civilian principal has supremacy to monitor the military agents.
He deduced the agency theory that specifies the conditions under which the civilians are expected to monitor the military intrusively or non-intrusively and the conditions under which to expect the military to work or shirk.
The theory outlines a general model for determining the behaviour of civil-military relations, albeit in several pairs of civilian and military patterns of behaviour Feaver, P In this framework, Feaver explores the control relationship playing out on a day-to-day basis given that the civilians in a democracy enjoy general supremacy over the military. He submits that: The civilian sector decides how to monitor the military based on varying expectations they hold about whether or not the military will obey them faithfully in the particulars of what they ask; this he refers to as 'working' and 'shirking'.
He uses the word to mean disloyalty; when the military does not work as civilian directs. Agency theory will ensure critical analysis of the issues and behaviours of civil-military relations in Nigeria.
It establishes a rationalist baseline against which to measure the influence of both actors on each other.
In classical understandings, particularly as grounded in Samuel Huntington's theory of objective civilian control of the military, civil-military relations are portrayed as separate civilian and military spheres under the assumption that the civilian politicians were the masters of the military, while the military maintains its professionalism Huntington, S Mit dieser ziehen Sie gegen feindliche Truppen ins Feld. Sowohl die Bedienung als auch das Spielprinzip sind mit dem Klassiker von identisch.
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There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Kindle Edition Verified download. Great book, but, as the previous reviewer noted, there are a lot of typos. Furthermore, the spelling is antiquated "th" for what today would be just "t" in words like "Tal," for instance and some off the word choices seem to be southern German or Austrian or maybe even Swiss: Still well worth reading, and my German isn't very good so your mileage may be a lot better than mine.
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